We are Using http://rsync.net/ for backups. The process below can easily be adapted for use with any linux based storage system because we use Duplicity, ssh keys and gpg for encryption.
Using the following commands:
We will run one backup which does weekly full, daily incremental, deleting full backups over 4 weeks, and incremental over 7 days.
We will run another (separate) monthly full backup which is deleted after 3 months.
For database backups:
# put the database backups into a 'backup' folder on the cloud server e.g. /home/web/repo/backup/pkimber.net/20141024_1700.sql /home/web/repo/backup/hatherleigh.info/20141024_1704.sql # cron task will remove the previous days backups after making todays e.g. rm /home/web/repo/backup/pkimber.net/20141023_1600.sql rm /home/web/repo/backup/hatherleigh.info/20141023_1604.sql # duplicity will back this up to rsync.net duplicity full --encrypt-key="ABCD0001" \ scp://firstname.lastname@example.org/pkimber.net/backup \ /home/web/repo/backup/pkimber.net duplicity full --encrypt-key="ABCD0001" \ scp://email@example.com/hatherleigh.info/backup \ /home/web/repo/backup/hatherleigh.info # duplicity will verify the backup duplicity verify --encrypt-key="ABCD0001" \ scp://firstname.lastname@example.org/pkimber.net/backup \ /home/web/repo/backup/pkimber.net duplicity verify --encrypt-key="ABCD0001" \ scp://email@example.com/hatherleigh.info/backup \ /home/web/repo/backup/hatherleigh.info
What can we do?¶
Delete all backups older than x days (weeks or months)
Remove all backups older than count full backups
Remove all incrementals older than count full backups
F 1st Sept I I F 15th Sept I I F 1st Oct I
We are using Duplicity 0.6 because the latest version of Duplicity on
Ubuntu 16.04 doesn’t work nicely with the Duplicity on our 14.04
servers. When our servers are using 16.04, then we can probably
go back to installing the standard distro version i.e.
sudo apt-get install duplicity python-paramiko
You will receive your account details from rsync.net. Please refer to the Checklist and fill in your own details.
Create an SSH key on your laptop:
ssh-keygen -o -a 100 -t ed25519
Do not enter a password here.
The old command line was
ssh-keygen -t rsa. We updated on the
advice of this article, Upgrade your SSH keys!
Upload your key to the rsync.net server:
cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub | ssh firstname.lastname@example.org 'dd of=.ssh/authorized_keys oflag=append conv=notrunc'
If you are setting up the rsync.net server for the first time ever:
Do not run the following command unless you are the first person (or computer) to use this rsync.net server. If you upload another key using this command, they will overwrite the first key.
scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub email@example.com:.ssh/authorized_keys
Test your ssh login to the server:
ssh firstname.lastname@example.org ls
These instructions are copied from Generating SSH Keys for Automated Backups (up to and including Testing Your Passwordless Login).
To encrypt the backups we need a gpg key. This key will be shared with all the web servers and with any laptops which need to decrypt (and restore) the data.
To create the gpg key:
gpg --gen-key # defaults... Please select what kind of key you want: (1) RSA and RSA (default) RSA keys may be between 1024 and 4096 bits long. What keysize do you want? (2048) Please specify how long the key should be valid. 0 = key does not expire You need a Passphrase to protect your secret key.
Accept the defaults (as above) and enter a passphrase for your gpg key.
List the keys, and make a note of the key number (in this example, the key is
gpg --list-keys # -------------------------------- # pub 2048R/ABCD1234 2014-10-30
Export the public and private keys and add them to your pillar:
cd ~/repo/dev/module/deploy/pillar/ gpg --armor --export ABCD1234 >> global/gpg.sls gpg --armor --export-secret-key ABCD1234 >> global/gpg.sls
global/gpg.sls file so it is in the following format e.g:
gpg: rsync.net: user: 123 server: usw-s001.rsync.net key: ABCD1234 public: | -----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- Version: GnuPG v1 ABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCA -----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- private: | -----BEGIN PGP PRIVATE KEY BLOCK----- Version: GnuPG v1 ABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCABCA -----END PGP PRIVATE KEY BLOCK-----
Multiline strings in YAML files are started with the
and are indented two characters.
To enable backups for a server, add the following to the pillar config for your server e.g:
# top.sls 'test-a': - global.gpg
Log into the Salt master and update your cloud server. Salt will do the following tasks:
- create an
- copy the GPG keys to the
- create a backup script for each site on the server
- create a cron script for each site on the server
ssh keys to the rsync.net server:
ssh server sudo -i -u web cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub | ssh email@example.com \ 'dd of=.ssh/authorized_keys oflag=append conv=notrunc' # enter your rsync.net password
Check that you can connect to the rsync.net server without a password:
ssh firstname.lastname@example.org ls -la
Import the GPG keys:
ssh server sudo -i -u web gpg --import ~/repo/temp/pub.gpg gpg --allow-secret-key-import --import ~/repo/temp/sec.gpg
List the keys, and then mark the rsync.net key as trusted:
gpg --list-keys gpg --edit-key ABCD1234 > trust # Select option 5 = I trust ultimately > q
Do an initial
full backup. The Salt states will create a backup script in
To initialise the backup run the script with the
full argument e.g:
To install an earlier version of Duplicity, see Install Duplicity 0.6
To list the files on
# database backup (and any files in the backup folder) ssh email@example.com ls -la hatherleigh.info/backup # files backup ssh firstname.lastname@example.org ls -la hatherleigh.info/files
To list backup dates:
duplicity collection-status ssh://email@example.com/hatherleigh.info/backup
To list the backups:
duplicity list-current-files ssh://firstname.lastname@example.org/hatherleigh.info/backup duplicity list-current-files ssh://email@example.com/hatherleigh.info/files
Duplicity makes restoring easy. You can restore by simply reversing the remote and local parameters.
You will probably see
Operation not permitted errors. This is
Duplicity attempting to restore owner and group permissions on the
To restore a folder:
PASSPHRASE="gpg-password" \ duplicity \ --file-to-restore \ "path/to/folder/" \ ssh://firstname.lastname@example.org/hatherleigh.info/files \ /path/to/restore/folder/
When restoring a folder,
/path/to/restore/folder/ must not exist.
It will be created by Duplicity.
To restore a single file (in this example we are restoring from a
PASSPHRASE="gpg-password" \ duplicity \ --file-to-restore \ "Dropbox/Contact/Cycle Policy.docx" \ ssh://email@example.com/dropbox/web.hatherleigh.info/files \ "/path/to/restore/Cycle Policy.docx"
When restoring a single file,
/path/to/restore/policy.docx is the
file name NOT the folder name.
To restore by date or time:
To restore a full set of files from 2 days ago (note you can omit the
duplicity restore -t 2D ssh://firstname.lastname@example.org/hatherleigh.info/backup /path/to/restore/file
To restore a full set of files from a specific time (note you can omit the
--time format is
YYYYMMDDTHHMMSSZ and Duplicity will pull the
restore from the next backup older than the time entered e.g.
collection-status shows a backup dated
20141125T112710Z and one dated
20141125T113000Z and retrieve data
duplicity restore --time 20141125T113000Z \ ssh://email@example.com/hatherleigh.info/backup \ /path/to/restore/file
Restoring from rsync.net back to any location other than the original
location will result in an
Error '[Errno 1] Operation not permitted:
prefix to each restored file although the files will restore and be
available… this is a known bug with Duplicity to do with permissions. See:
Why do I get an ‘Operation not permitted’
Install Duplicity 0.6¶
Here are some instructions for installing 0.6 version of duplicity. I’ve
installed it in
/opt/duplicity so that it is not overwritten by a new
version when we upgrade ubuntu.
Remove the installed version of
apt remove duplicity
Download the latest version of the 0.6 tarball from: https://code.launchpad.net/duplicity/0.6-series/0.6.26/+download/duplicity-0.6.26.tar.gz
Create a directory for Duplicity (you will need to
sudo for this):
# sudo mkdir /opt/duplicity
Extract the archive to a temporary folder.
Change into the folder and run:
# sudo python setup.py install --prefix=/opt/duplicity
You might need to:
sudo apt install librsync-dev python-dev python-lockfile python-paramiko
Create a script (in your home folder) to run duplicity as follows:
# vim ~/bin/duplicity #!/bin/bash # exit immediately if a command exits with a nonzero exit status. set -e # treat unset variables as an error when substituting. set -u export PYTHONPATH='/opt/duplicity/lib/python2.7/site-packages/' /opt/duplicity/bin/duplicity $@
Make it executable:
chmod a+x ~/bin/duplicity
Test it using:
Then uninstall the distro version:
sudo apt-get remove duplicity